To begin with, CSOR will look at six conditions for which children undergo early surgery. These conditions are oesophageal atresia, gastroschisis, Hirschsprung's disease, posterior urethral valves, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and necrotisising enterocolitis. These six conditions have been chosen as they cover a broad range of scenarios in which children come to require surgery. Children with some of these conditions require emergency surgery whilst others require only planned surgery, some require admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, whilst others are treated on a general paediatric ward, and some require operations on their chest, whilst others require operations on their bowel or urinary system. If development of CSOR is successful, it will be expanded to cover other conditions in which children require early surgery as well.