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Rema Ramakrishnan PhD, MPH

CSOR EXPRESS Senior Statistician


Rema Ramakrishnan joined the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit in January 2021. Prior to this she was a biostatistician/epidemiologist at the Nuffield Department of Women's and Reproductive Health, University of Oxford. She completed her Master's in Public Health degree from the University of Minnesota -Twin Cities in 2011 and PhD (Epidemiology) from the University of South Florida in 2017.

She is passionate about studying exposures and outcomes in reproductive, perinatal, and life-course epidemiology. She has an interest in causal inference and the use of advanced statistical methods to address questions in these areas.

Currently, she works with Professor Marian Knight as a senior statistician on two projects – CSOR and EXPRESS


Journal articles:

Engjom H, Ramakrishnan R, Vousden N, Bunch K, Morris E, Simpson N, Gale C, O'Brien P, Quigley M, Brocklehurst P, Kurinczuk J, Knight M. Severity of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection and perinatal outcomes when Omicron variant was dominant- the UK Obstetric Surveillance System national cohort. BMJ Medicine, 2022

McCall S, Deneux-Tharaux C, Sentilhes L, Ramakrishnan R, Collins S, Seco A, Kurinczuk J, Knight M, Kayem G. Placenta accreta spectrum - variations in clinical practice and maternal morbidity between UK and France: a population-based comparative study. BJOG, 2022

Rao S, Mamouei M, Salimi-Khorshidi G, Li Y, Ramakrishnan R, Hassaine A, Canoy D, Rahimi K. Targeted-BEHRT: Deep learning for observational causal inference on longitudinal electronic health records. IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst. 2022.

Ramakrishnan R, Stuart A, Salemi JL, Chen H, O'Rourke K, Kirby RS. Maternal exposure to ambient ozone and congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A population-based retrospective cohort study from Florida, 1998–2012. Atmospheric Environment; 2022.

Rao S, Li Y, Ramakrishnan R, Hassaine A, Canoy D, Cleland J, Lukasiewicz, Salimi-Khorshidi G, Rahimi K. An Explainable Transformer-Based Deep Learning Model for the Prediction of Incident Heart Failure. IEEE J Biomed Health Inform, 2022

Ramakrishnan R, Holland V, Agu N, Brady C, Marshall J. Individual – and Program - Level Characteristics of Participant Retention in a Perinatal Home Visiting Program. Prevention Science, 2022.

Hill M, Ellard S, Fisher J, Fulop NJ, Knight M, Kroese M, Ledger J, Leeson-Beevers K, McEwan A, McMullan D, Mellis R, Morris S, Parker M, Tapon D, Baple E, Blackburn L, Choudry A, Lafarge C, McInnes-Dean H, Peter M, Ramakrishnan R, Roberts L, Searle B, Wynn SL, Wu WH, Chitty LS. Optimising Exome Prenatal Sequencing Services (EXPRESS): A study protocol to evaluate rapid prenatal exome sequencing in the NHS Genomic Medicine Service. NIHR Open Res. 2022 Jul 18;2:10.

Ye Q, Kong S, Yin X, Gao C, Lu M, Ramakrishnan R, Guo C, Yao W, Zeng J, Kuang Y, Lu J, He J, Qiu X. Associations of Cord Blood Lipids with Childhood Adiposity at the Age of Three Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study. Metabolites, 2022

Delanerolle G, Zeng Y, Shi J, Yeng Y, Goodison W, Shetty A, Shetty S, Haque N, Elliot K, Ranaweera S, Ramakrishnan R, Raymont V, Rathod S, Phiri P. Mental health impact of the Middle East respiratory syndrome, SARS, and COVID-19: A comparative systematic review and meta-analysis. World of Psychiatry, 2022.

Vousden N, Ramakrishnan R, Bunch K, Morris E, Simpson N, Gale C, O'Brien P, Quigley M, Brocklehurst P, Kurinczuk J, Knight M. Impact of SARS-CoV-2 variant on the severity of maternal infection and perinatal outcomes: Data from the UK Obstetric Surveillance System national cohort. BMJ Medicine, 2022.

Vousden N, Ramakrishnan R, Bunch K, Morris E, Simpson N, Gale C, O'Brien P, Quigley M, Brocklehurst P, Kurinczuk J, Knight M. Severity of maternal infection and perinatal outcomes during periods in which Wildtype, Alpha and Delta SARS-CoV-2 variants were dominant: Data from the UK Obstetric Surveillance System national cohort. Acta Paediatrica, 2022

Canoy D, Copland E, Nazarzadeh M, Ramakrishnan R, Rahimi K. Effect of Antihypertensive Drug Treatment on Long-term Blood Pressure Reduction: An Individual Patient-Level Data Meta-Analysis. Heart, 2022

Huang J, Chen Q, Zheng S, Ramakrishnan R, Zeng J, Zhuo C, Lai Y, Lu J, He J, Qiu Z. Fetal growth at different gestational periods and metabolic factors in cord blood: The Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Frontiers in Endocrinology

Li Y, Rao S, Hassaine A, Ramakrishnan R, Zhu Y, Canoy D, Salimi-Khorshidi G, Lukasiewicz T, Rahimi K. Deep Bayesian Gaussian Processes for Uncertainty Estimation in Electronic Health Records. Scientific Reports

Canoy D, Tran J, Zottoli M, Ramakrishnan R, Hassaine A, Rao S, Li Y, Salimi-Khorshidi G, Norton R, Rahimi K. Cardiometabolic disease, comorbidities, and risk of mortality in 2 million adults. BMC Medicine

Cai Y, Gibson H, Ramakrishnan R, Fisher T, Mamouei M, Rahimi K. Ambient air pollution and respiratory health in sub-Saharan African children: a cross-sectional analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.

Walmsley R, Shin, Smith-Byrne K, Ramakrishnan R, Woodward M, Rahimi K, Dwyer T, Bennett D, Doherty A. Reallocating time from machine-learned sleep, sedentary behaviour or light physical activity to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk. British Journal of Sports Medicine

Ramakrishnan R, Rao S, He J. Perinatal Health Indicators using Artificial Intelligence – A Review. Women's Health

He J, Hirst J, Tikellis G, Phillips GS, Ramakrishnan R, Paltiel O, Ponsonby AL, Kelbanoff M, Olsen J, Murphy M, Haberg SE, Lemeshow S, Olsen S, Qiu X, Per Minor M, Golding J, Ward M, Wiemels J, Rahimi K, Linet M, Dwyer T on behalf of the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. Common maternal infections during pregnancy and childhood leukaemia in the offspring: Findings from six international birth cohorts. Int J Epidemiol.

Taylor E, Marson E, Elhadi M, Macleod K, Yu Y, Davids R, Boden R, Overmeyer R, Ramakrishnan R, Thomson D, Coetzee J, Biccard B. Factors associated with mortality among patients with COVID-19 admitted to critical care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anaesthesia. 2021

Pinho-Gomes A, Azevedo L, Copland E, Canoy D, Nazarzadeh M, Ramakrishnan R, Berge E, Sundström J, Kotecha K, Woodward M, Teo K, Davis BR, Chalmers J, Pepine CJ, Rahimi K. The Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Blood pressure lowering treatment for prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation: an individual-participant data meta-analysis. PLoS Medicine

Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Pharmacological blood pressure-lowering for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease across different levels of blood pressure: an individual participant meta-analysis of 48 randomised clinical trials and 348,854 participants. Lancet, 2021

Copland E, Canoy D, Nazarzadeh M, Bidel Z, Ramakrishnan R, Woodward M, Chalmers J, Teo KK, Pepine CJ, Davis BR, Kjeldsen S, Sundström J, Rahimi K. The Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Antihypertensive medications and risk of cancer: Individual participant data meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Lancet Oncology, 2021

Delanerolle G, Ramakrishnan R, Hapangama D, Zheng Y, Shetty A, Sohier E, Chong S, Hirsch M, Molola O, Phiri P, Elliot K, Kothari T, Sandle N, Haque N, Pluchino N, Sillem M, O'Hara B, Hull L, Majumder K, Bryony R, Shi J, Raymont V. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Endometriosis and Mental Health Sequelae; The ELEMI Project. Women's Health, 2021

Phiri P, Ramakrishnan R, Rathod S, Elliot K, Thayanandan T, Sandle N, Haque N, Chau S, Wong O, Chan S, Wong E, Raymont V, Kingdon D, Delanerolle G. An evaluation of the mental health impact of SARS-Cov-2 on patients, general public and healthcare professionals: A systematic review and meta-analysis. EClinicalMedicine, 2021

Chau S, Wong O, Ramakrishnan R, Chan S, Wong E, Li P, Raymont V, Elliot K, Rathod S, Delanerolle, Phiri P. History for some or lesson for all? A systematic review and meta-analysis on the immediate and long-term mental health impact of the 2002-2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak. BMC Public Health, 2021

He J, Ramakrishnan R, Wei Xue-L, Lu J, Lu M, Zhou F, Zhang L, Xia H, Qiu X, on behalf of the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study Group. Fetal growth at different gestational periods and risk of impaired childhood growth, low childhood weight, and obesity: A prospective birth cohort study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2021

Kupcikova Z, Fecht D, Ramakrishnan R, Clark C, Cai Y. Road Traffic Noise and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in UK Biobank. European Heart Journal, 2021

Delanerolle G, Rathod S, Elliot K, Ramakrishnan R, Thayanandan T, Sandle N, Haque N, Raymont V, Phiri p. Rapid Commentary: Are we considering the immediate and long-term ethical implications for Clinical Trialists and Patients when conducting Covid-19 research? Ethical implications for Covid-19 research. World of Psychiatry, 2021

Rao S, Li Y, Ramakrishnan R, Hassaine A, Zhu Y, Zottoli M, Canoy D, Cleland J, Lukasiewicz T, Salimi-Khorshidi G, Rahimi K. An explainable deep learning model for the prediction of incident heart failure. Arxiv, 2021.

Ramakrishnan R, Doherty A, Smith-Byrne K, Rahimi K, Woodward M, Bennett D, Walmsley R, Dwyer T. Accelerometer measured physical activity and the incidence of cardiovascular disease among participants from the UK Biobank study. PLoS Medicine, 2021

Ramakrishnan R, He J, Ponsonby AL, Woodward M, Rahimi K, Blair SN, Dwyer T. Objectively measured physical activity and mortality: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Preventive Medicine, 2021

Cai Y, Ramakrishnan R, Rahimi K. Long-term exposure to traffic noise and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence between 2000-2020. Environment Pollution, 2021

Sarmadi M, Bidel Z, Najafi F, Ramakrishnan R, Teymoori F, Azhdari ZH, Nazarzadeh M. Copper concentration in multiple sclerosis disease: a systematic-review and meta-analysis. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 2020

Wade C, Frazer JS, Qian E, Davidson L, Dash S, Naudé A, Ramakrishnan R, Aluvaala J, Lakhoo K, English M. Employing systematic review and local expertise to develop evidence-based neonatal analgesic guidelines for low- and middle-income country non-tertiary hospitals- Kenyan experience. Lancet Child and Adolescent Health, 2020.

Li Y, Rao S, Solares JRA, Hassaine A, Ramakrishnan R, Canoy D, Zhu Y, Rahimi K, Salimi-Khorshidi G. BEHRT: Transformer for Electronic Health Records. Scientific Reports, 2020

He J, Ramakrishnan R, Hirst J, Bonaventure A, Francis S, Paltiel O, Haberg SE, Lemeshow S, Olsen S, Tikellis G, Per Minor M, Murphy M, Wiemels J, Dwyer T. Systematic Review of Maternal Infection and Childhood Leukaemia. Journal of Pediatrics. 2020 Feb; 217:98-109.e8.

Kartiosuo N, Ramakrishnan R, Lemeshow S, Juonala M, Burns TL, Woo JG, Jacobs Jr DR, Daniels S, Venn A, Steinberger J, Urbina E, Bazzano L, Sabin MA, Hu T, Prineas R, Sinaiko AR, Pahkala K, Raitakari O, Dwyer T. Predicting overweight and obesity in young adulthood from childhood body-mass index: a comparison of cutoffs derived from longitudinal and cross-sectional data. Lancet Child and Adolescent Health, 2019.

Barker J, Smith-Bryne K, Foster C, Doherty A, Rahimi K, Ramakrishnan R, Woodward M, Dwyer T. Response to: One size does not fit all-application of accelerometer thresholds in chronic disease. International Journal of Epidemiology, 2019.

Ramakrishnan R, Salemi JL, Stuart A, Chen H, O'Rourke K, Kirby RS. Maternal Exposure to Ambient Cadmium Levels, Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, and Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia. Birth Defects Research, 2019.

Barker J, Smith-Bryne K, Foster C, Doherty A, Rahimi K, Ramakrishnan R, Woodward M, Dwyer T. Physical activity of UK adults with chronic disease: cross sectional analysis of accelerometer-measured physical activity in 96706 UK Biobank participants. International Journal of Epidemiology, 2019.

Agu N, Michael- Asalu A, Ramakrishnan R, Birriel P, Balogun T, Parish A, Coulter M, Marshall J. Improving Intimate Partner Violence Services in Home Visiting: A multisite learning Collaborative Approach. Journal of Social Services Research, Mar 2019, 1-13

Marshall J, Ramakrishnan R, Slotnick A, Tanner JP, Salemi JL, Kirby RS. The Family Experiences Survey: Family centered services for children with Down Syndrome and their families in Florida. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing; 2019, 48(1): 78-89.

Pan F, Smith-Byrne K, Ramakrishnan R, Ferreira M, Dwyer T, Jones G. Association between musculoskeletal pain at multiple sites and objectively measured physical activity and work capacity: Results from UK Biobank study. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sports, 2018; 22(4): 444-449.

Ramakrishnan R, Salemi JL, Stuart A, Chen H, O'Rourke K, Obican S, Kirby RS. Trends, Correlates, and Survival of Infants with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and its Subtypes. Birth Defects Research; 2018; 110 (14).

He J, Ramakrishnan R, Lai Y, Li W, Xuan Z, Hu Y, Chen N, Li S, Hu F , Lu J , Wei X , Yuan M, Shen S, Qiu L , Chen O , Hu C , Cheng KK , Mol BWJ, Xia H , Qiu X , on behalf of the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study Group. Prediction of Preterm Birth from Early Pregnancy Characteristics in a Chinese Population: a Prospective Cohort Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine; 2018; 7(8).

Alitz P, Geary S, Birriel P, Sayi T, Ramakrishnan R, Balogun O, Salloum, A, Marshall J. Work-related Stressors among MIECHV Home Visitors: A Qualitative Study. Maternal and Child Health Journal; 2018.

Jean- Baptiste E, Davis S, Alitz P, Birriel P, Ramakrishnan R, Olson L, Marshall J. Immigrant Health through the Lens of Home Visitors: A Florida Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Study. Public Health Nurs; 2017, 34(6).

Nweze IC, DiGiacomo JC, Shin SS, Gupta C, Ramakrishnan R, Lambros DG. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Disparities in Prevalence of Alcohol - Related Injury among Underserved Trauma Patients in a Suburban Safety-net Hospital. Injury; 2016; 47. (12).

Marshall J, Salemi JL, Tanner JP, Ramakrishnan R, Feldkamp ML, Marengo LK, Meyer RE, Druschel CM, Rickard R, Kirby RS for the National Birth Defects Prevention Network. Prevalence, Correlates, and Outcomes of Omphalocele in the United States, 1995-2000. Obstet Gynecol.; 2015; 126(2).

Ramakrishnan R, Oberg CN, Kirby RS. The Association between Maternal Perceptions of Obstetric and Pediatric Care Provider Attitudes and Exclusive Breastfeeding Outcomes. J Hum Lact; 2014 Feb; 30(1): 80-7.

Shamliyan TA, Kane RL, Ramakrishnan R, Taylor FR. Migraine in Children: Limited Evidence for Pharmacologic Treatment. J Child Neurol. 2013, 28(10): 1320-41.

Hong H, Carlin BP, Shamliyan TA, Wyman JF, Ramakrishnan R, Sainfort F, Kane RL. Comparing Bayesian and Frequentist Approaches for Multiple Outcome Mixed Treatment Comparisons. Medical Decision Making Journal; 2013; 33(5): 702-714

Shamliyan TA, Choi JY, Ramakrishnan R, Miller JB, Wang SY, Taylor FR, Kane RL. Preventive pharmacologic treatments for Episodic Migraine. J Gen Intern Med.; Sep 2013, 28(9): 1225-37.

Wang SY, Shamliyan TA, Talley KMC, Ramakrishnan R, Kane RL. Not Just Specific Diseases: Systematic Review of the Association of Geriatric Syndromes with Hospitalization and Nursing Home Admission. Arch Gerontol Geriatr.; 2013, 57(1):16-26.

Wang SY, Olson-Kellogg B, Shamliyan TA, Choi JY, Ramakrishnan R, Kane RL. Systematic Review: Physical Therapy for Knee Pain Secondary to Osteoarthritis. Ann of Intern Med.; 2012, 157(9): 632-644.

Treadwell JR, Uhl S, Tipton K, Shamliyan TA, Viswanathan M, Berkman ND, Sun X, Coleman CI, Elshaug AG, Singh S, Wang SY, Ramakrishnan R. Assessing Equivalence and Noninferiority. J Clin Epid; Nov 2012, 65(11), 1144-1149. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2012.05.001.

Shamliyan TA, Talley K, Ramakrishnan R, Kane RL. Association of Frailty with Survival: A systematic review of the literature. Ageing Res Rev.; 2013, 12(2): 719-36.

Shamliyan TA, Wyman J, Ramakrishnan R, Sainfort F, Kane RL. Benefits and harms of pharmacologic treatment for urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review. Ann of Intern Med.; 2012, 156(12): 861-74.

Books Chapters:

Marshall, J., Birriel, P. C., Ramakrishnan, R., Martinez Tyson, D., & Sappenfield, W.M. Collaboration and Partnership. In K.D. Liller, J. Corvin, & H. Venkatachalam (Eds). Certified in Public Health Exam Review Guide. Washington, DC: American Public Health. 2018

Peer – Reviewed Reports:

Shamliyan TA, Kane RL, Ramakrishnan R, Taylor FR. Migraine in Children: Preventive Pharmacologic Treatments. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 108. (Prepared by the University of Minnesota Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10064-I.) AHRQ Publication No. 3-EHC065-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; June 2013.

Treadwell JR, Uhl S, Tipton K, Singh S, Santaguida L, Sun X, Berkman ND, Viswanathan M, Coleman CI, Shamliyan TA, Wang SY, Ramakrishnan R, Elshaug AG. Assessing Equivalence and Noninferiority. Methods Research Report. (Prepared by the EPC Workgroup under Contract No. 290-2007-10063.) AHRQ Publication No. 12- EHC045-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; June 2012.